Jeffrey Erlich started his neuroscience career analyzing phospholipid metabolism in psychiatric disorders during a gap semester between high school and university. He completed his undergraduate studies in Computer Science and Neuroscience at McGill University, where he got his first experiences with rat electrophysiology in the lab of Matthew Shapiro. He received his PhD from New York University in the lab of Joseph LeDoux with the support of a Howard Hughes Predoctoral Fellowship. He then joined Carlos Brody's lab at Princeton University as a postdoc, where he helped build a highly automated rat training facility and published seminal work on rodent cognition.
He started his own lab at New York University Shanghai in 2015 where he studied decision making in rats, mice, humans, and synthetic agents. He has been supported by several awards from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality and the National Science Foundation of China. In January 2022, he joined the Sainsbury Wellcome Center at UCL as Group Leader where he continues to study the behavioural, computational, and neurobiological basis of cognition.